The Eisinger score is a score taking into account all family history, validated for the indication of oncogenetic consultation. It also makes it possible to graduate the risk of breast cancer in the absence of a mutation. The quotations must be added for each case of the same parental branch (paternal or maternal).
Score = 5 or more: high.
Score = 3 or 4: possible.
Score = 1 or 2: low.
This pathology develops from the cells of the mammary gland: it is called adenocarcinoma. "A cell of the mammary gland suddenly transforms and develops in an anarchic way; the resulting cells proliferate without stopping and can migrate to other parts of the body. These are then metastases, which can reach the bones, organs such as the liver or the lungs…”. These cells develop from the epithelium that lines the milk ducts (in which milk circulates).
There are several risk factors for breast cancer. The former are frequent but have a small contribution to the development of breast cancer. For example, the fact of having had your period early, having a late menopause, not having had children later, or not having breastfed constitute moderate risk factors. Other common risk factors, but relatively low in terms of impact: having undergone hormone treatment for menopause, overweight, obesity, and sedentary lifestyle, as well as alcohol consumption. We distinguish another subgroup of risk factors: "those which are less frequent, but which play an important role". These are genetic factors. Women who carry the BRCA1 or BRCA 2 genes may have up to a 70% chance of developing breast cancer in their lifetime. "But this represents less than 5% of cases among patients". Heredity also plays a role: women who have had a history of breast cancer in their family are more at risk. Other rarer genes, BRCA1 or BCRA2, may also be involved. "Finally, there are very specific factors, 'niche' factors", adds Jean-Yves Pierga. Thus, the fact of having been irradiated to the thorax during adolescence after first cancer increases the risk of developing breast cancer in adulthood.