The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, BDI-II), created by Dr. Aaron T. Beck, is a multiple-choice questionnaire used to measure the severity of clinical depression. Its development marked the practice of health professionals, who until then perceived depression through a psychodynamic perspective, instead of characterizing it through the patient's own descriptions.
In its current version, the questionnaire was carried out for young individuals aged 13 and over and is composed of words relating to symptoms of depression such as hopelessness and irritability, cognitive symptoms such as guilt, emotional symptoms, and physical symptoms such as fatigue, weight loss. There are three versions of this inventory — the original, first published in 1961, then revised in 1978 as IDB-1A, and IDB-II, published in 1996.
The abbreviated Beck scale, often referred to as BDI-13 (Beck Depression Inventory), is a questionnaire that, made up of 13 questions, uses an overall score to assess the level of depression.
The total score is the sum of the 13 questions. It varies from 0 to 39:
- 0-3: No depression.
- 4-7: Mild depression.
- 8-15: Depression of medium to moderate intensity.
- 16 and over: Severe depression.